6000 o.c. Perhaps not our idea of a metropolis, the settlement at Catal HOyuk in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) is considered by many scholars to be the first city. Dating back about 9,000 years, Catal Huyi)k, meaning "fork mound" in Turkish, consists of two dirt mounds near the Carsamba River.Walter Fairservis, Jr. (1921-1994), an American archaeologist, described it as a community "at the threshold of civilization." In its day, several thousand people lived in catal 1-10y0k, dwelling in flat-roofed, Catal I-1(.iyuk's citizens were shepherds, hunters, farmers, and gatherers of wild plants from the nearby marshes. They wove cloth, made baskets and pottery, and tanned leather. They also traded obsidian, a naturally occurring volcanic glass they gathered from volcanoes to the northeast and crafted into knives and tools. It is clear that catal Huyijk had many of the trappings of urban life, including a barter economy, division of labor, social hierarchy, and private ownership of land.Brought to worldwide attention in 1961 by British archaeologist James Mellaart (1925-2012), Catal FICiyuk continues to be excavated today. Its size and complexity are unparalleled; many rooms include figurines, animal horns, religious shrines, and, quite possibly, the world's first known landscape art.