The horse collar is thought to haveoginated during the sixth century in Bactria, anent Iranian civilization located in present-day c.,thern Afghanistan, where collars were already r ..,se on camels. When the collar made its way Europe around 920, along with heavy-wheeled mows from Asia, an agricultural revolution began. Secause horses are 50 percent faster than oxen, -sing them for plowing increased farmers' yields. F--or the first time, there were food surpluses, which !ed to the success of the European feudal system. Originally devised to address medieval peoples' dual needs for military protection and food production, feudalism was a political class system.
It appeared in Japan, China, Persia, and Byzantium,but its most systematic use was in Europe, starting in the eighth century. The king parceled out large estates to his nobles in exchange for their support. The nobles then guarded the king's realm and doled out their land to lesser lords, who served as knights in times of conflict. The peasants, or serfs, farmed the land for their noble masters, who grew rich from the serfs' labor.As the threat of invasion diminished in the 11th century, many serfs slipped away to growing towns, but in Russia the system would not be abolished until 1861, when Tsar Nicholas II outlawed it in fear of massive serf rebellions.